El primero, ubicado en el norte del estado, a 300 km de la capital estatal, es desarrollado por la empresa Gargaú Energética S.A., subsidiaria de Ecopart Investimentos Ltda.. Emplazado en un área de 500 hectáreas, tendrá una capacidad de 28 MW y le corresponde una inversión de 67 millones de dólares.
En tanto, el de Arraial do Cabo –que en este momento se encuentra a la espera de la licencia ambiental- se situará a 140 km al este de Río de Janeiro, tendrá 14 MW de capacidad de generación y prevén una inversión total de 154 millones de dólares.
El secretario estadual de Desarrollo Económico, Energía y Servicios explicó que en dicha zona la energía eólica es complementaria de la hidroeléctrica, puesto que los vientos son más fuertes en los periodos en que los ríos están con poco flujo.
Brasil tiene 341 megavatios instalados.
The State of Rio de Janeiro has two wind projects in progress.
The State of Rio de Janeiro, the second in economic importance in the country after San Pablo, has two wind projects in its territory, in varying stages of development. The largest stands at the San Francisco Itabapoana, while the other is in Arraial do Cabo. Both forecast to become operational in 2010.
The first one, located in the north of the state, 300 km from the state capital, is developed by the company Gargaú Energética SA, a subsidiary of Ecopart Investimentos Ltda. Occupying an area of 500 hectares, will have a capacity of 28 MW with an investment of U$S 67 billion.
Meanwhile, the Arraial do Cabo one, which is now awaiting the environmental permit, is located 140 km east of Rio de Janeiro; it will have 14 MW of generation capacity with a total investment of U$S 154 million.
The state secretary of Economic Development, Energy and Services explained that in this area, wind power is complementary to hydropower, because the winds are stronger in periods when the rivers are low flow.
Wind power in Brazil
The total electrical generation capacity in Brazil was 105.4 GW at the end of 2007, of which 73% came from renewable sources, including large and small hydro power, wind and biomass.
Historically, Brazil has relied heavily on its abundant hydro resources. However, there is growing acknowledgement today that these resources are stretched due to economic and population growth, demographic expansion into the interior of the country and climate change.
There is a growing interest in Brazil to develop new renewable energy sources, fueled by concerns over energy security and an unwillingness to rely on imported fossil fuels.
A tremendous wind resource
A wind atlas published by the Electric Power Research Centre – CEPEL/ELETROBRÁS in 2001 shows that the potential for onshore wind energy capacity is 143 GW in Brazil (at 50 meters high). New wind maps, which are being prepared by the government based on measurements at 80-100 meters, are expected to demonstrate a capacity which is considerably higher.
The best wind resources in terms of wind speed and capacity factor are in the Northeast, Southeast and Southern Regions.
In 2002, the Brazilian government passed the pioneering PROINFA program, designed to foster the uptake of renewable energy sources in the Brazilian electricity mix. Although the programme has not been as successful as originally planned, it continues to add new capacity to the grid.
In 2008, it was decided that new capacity added to the grid from all energy sources should be done by public auction, with contracts awarded to the lowest bidders. Last year there were two major auctions of thermal energy. More
recently, there was a formal announcement that auctions will be held by type of generating source, and wind power was chosen to be one of the next auctions.
In 2008, five new wind farms were added to the Brazilian system, taking the total installed capacity up to 341 MW. Most of these new wind farms were located in the State of Ceará, in the North East of the country.
Historically, only one manufacturer was present in Brazil. During 2008, however, several other companies entered the market and as a result, there are now four major wind turbine manufacturers:
* Wobben Enercon (the pioneer in this market, with two manufacturing plants in Brazil and more than 340 MW installed, including PROINFA wind farms);
* Suzlon (with more than 300 MW sold for PROINFA wind farms);
* Vestas (with close to 200 MW sold for PROINFA wind farms);
* IMPSA (with orders for 318 MW that will be installed in
PROINFA wind farms that belong to the IMPSA Group of Companies; IMPSA also now has one manufacturing plant in Brazil).
The number of qualified developers and operators in the wind energy market has also grown considerably during the last year. Companies that have wind parks under operation or in accelerated construction have established a stronger local presence, thereby increasing their capacity for developing new wind parks.
Organisations that have PROINFA wind parks in operation or at advanced stages of construction include: Iberdrola, Pacific Hydro, AES Tractebel, Servtec Group, IMPSA – Energimp, EDP – Enerbrasil, Siif Energies, Enerfin and Ventos do Sul.
There are also newcomers in the wind market, including Brazilian groups ERSA, Renova, and Brennand Energia. New international players from Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Norway, Germany and other European countries also have
interest in the Brazilian market.
Financing from Brazilian official sources can be obtained from the National Economic and Social Development Bank (BNDES) with nation-wide jurisdiction. For projects located in the Northeastern Region, financing can also be arranged by the Bank of Northeast of Brazil (BNB) and also by Development Agency of the Northeast (ADENE).
By mid-January 2009, the installed capacity in Brazil reached 360 MW, and it is expected to grow by several hundred MW during the course of the year. The PROINFA Wind Parks, which suffered a delay in the beginning of this program, had a completion deadline for the end of 2008. At the moment, contracts are under scrutiny between ELETROBRÁS and the project developers, analyzing the reasons for delay on a case by case basis.
A wind energy auction is expected to be held in late 2009, and is expected to call for up to 1,000 MW in generating capacity. More than 4,500 MW of projects are qualified for the auction.
Wind farms in Brazil
Eólica Prainha-10 MW
Eólica de Taíba-5 MW
Eólica do Morro de Camelinho-1 MW
Eólio-Elétrica de Palmas-2.5 MW
Eólica de Fernando de Noronha-0.225 MW
RN 15 – Rio do Fogo-49.3 MW
Eólica de Bom Jardim-0.60 MW
Eólica de Olinda-0.225 MW
Parque Eólico do Horizonte-4.8 MW
Eólica Água Doce-9 MW
Parque Eólico Osório-50 MW
Parque Eólico Sangradouro-50 MW
Parque Eólico dos Índios-50 MW
Eólica Millennium-10.2 MW
Parque Eólico Beberibe-25.6 MW
Eólica Canoa Quebrada-10.5 MW
Eólica Paracuru-23.4 MW
Pedra do Sal-17.85 MW
Taíba Albatroz-16.5 MW