Asimismo establece objetivos de captación de recursos, de estímulos y de formulación de políticas públicas para el desarrollo de la eólica en Brasil, que crece cerca de 27 por ciento al año en el mundo.
Brasil tiene el mayor potencial de producción eólica de América Latina y el Caribe, según especialistas de este país
La carta “es un paso histórico para la energía eólica de Brasil”, dijo el ministro de Medio Ambiente de Brasil, Carlos Minc.
“Hoy establecimos metas, financiamientos, marcos regulatorios, y ya no nos vamos a perder de nuevo el tren del viento”, celebró el ministro desde Natal, capital de Rio Grande do Norte, en el noreste del país.
Minc fue uno de los firmantes de la Carta de los Vientos, paso culminante del Foro Nacional Eólico que reúne este jueves y el viernes en Natal a los secretarios de Energía de los estados de este país, empresas, representantes del Poder Legislativo y autoridades nacionales.
El ministro anunció la disposición del gobierno de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva de reducir a cero los impuestos aplicados a los equipos para generar energía eólica.
La primera medida en esa dirección había sido la convocatoria para el 25 de noviembre de la primera subasta nacional de energía eólica.
Minc señaló que su cartera propondrá al gobierno que esas subastas se realicen todos los años, y que la capacidad ofertada aumente de 2.000 a 3.000 megavatios.
El ministro consideró “una vergüenza” que un país como Brasil, considerado el de mayor potencial de vientos en la región, apenas produzca 200 megavatios.
La perspectiva a corto plazo es aumentar esa capacidad de generación a 30.000 o 40.000 megavatios, pero el potencial es mucho mayor, de unos 140.000 megavatios, según el último atlas de vientos.
La Asociación Brasileña de la Industria Eólica estima en cambio esa capacidad en 300.000 megavatios lo que, según su presidente Lauro Fiuza, representa el triple de la capacidad de todas las fuentes energéticas de las que dispone hoy este país.
Minc destacó que, además de los estímulos a las fuentes limpias como el viento y el sol, su ministerio impulsó medidas como la que obliga a las empresas térmicas a carbón o gasóleo a pagar por los costes de sus emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero con acciones como la plantación de áreas forestales.
Además, dijo Minc, se está empleando mayor rigor para conceder licencias ambientales a las grandes iniciativas hidroeléctricas, que actualmente constituyen la principal fuente energética de este país de más de 189 millones de habitantes.
El secretario de Energía del gobierno de Rio Grande do Norte, Jean-Paul Prates, consideró que la importancia de la Carta de los Vientos radica en un calendario concreto para impulsar la energía eólica y sus derivaciones, como el estímulo a la investigación y el desarrollo y la reducción de impuestos.
Prates dijo que para incentivar inicialmente esta producción es “inevitable” que haya subsidios gubernamentales. Mencionó los casos de España, Dinamarca, Holanda, Portugal, y “hasta Estados Unidos, que es más liberal”, pues todos apelaron al apoyo estatal para estimular su desarrollo.
Sin embargo, destacó, es un mito que el costo de la energía eólica sea mayor que el de otras fuentes tradicionales de electricidad.
El secretario estadual subrayó en primer lugar que “el viento es gratis” y que algunos cálculos no tienen en cuenta otros costos de las energías tradicionales, como el de la contaminación ambiental asociada y las consecuencias sociales y económicas que entrañan.
Prates también dijo calificó de “mito” la afirmación de que las turbinas eólicas “matan animales”, una idea que vinculó a los comienzos de los parques eólicos en el estado estadounidense de California, donde los aerogeneradores estaban muy cerca unos de otros.
Otra mentira, debatida en el foro por un panel sobre “mitos y verdades sobre la energía eólica”, sostuvo Prates, es la de la contaminación visual de los parques eólicos.
Encuestas realizadas a poblaciones que viven en lugares donde hay generadores eólicos mostraron que su presencia no incomoda a la gente, porque sabe que generan electricidad y por lo tanto resultados económicos, arguyó.
Por la calidad de sus vientos “fuertes y constantes”, el estado de Rio Grande do Norte, anfitrión del encuentro situado en el extremo más oriental de Brasil sobre el océano Atlántico, es considerado uno de los de mayor potencial nacional para expandir esta fuente de energía.
La gobernadora de ese estado, Wilma de Faria, destacó los esfuerzos de su distrito para estimular esa producción. La región tiene ya dos parques eólicos, que generan 53 megavatios.
Faria, del Partido Socialista Brasileño, subrayó que sólo su estado podría generar 22.000 megavatios, y hasta duplicarlos, según nuevas mediciones en marcha en áreas ventosas.
El objetivo de Rio Grande do Norte es generar 8.000 megavatios en unos cinco años, mediante subastas e incentivos.
El estado, que no es autosuficiente en materia energética, pretende con esos estímulos llegar a vender energía a otras regiones del país.
Según el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA), éste es el país con mayor porcentaje de fuentes renovables en su matriz energética, el 80 por ciento.
Según el PNUMA, Brasil es líder mundial en el financiamiento de energías limpias. Más de 90 por ciento de las nuevas inversiones registradas en América Latina correspondieron a este país sudamericano.
Pese a su crecimiento constante, la energía eólica es considerada todavía marginal, pues sólo representa tres por ciento de la matriz energética mundial.
Sin embargo, en Dinamarca aporta cerca de 20 por ciento del consumo de electricidad, en España 13 por ciento, en Portugal 11 por ciento, y en Italia, nueve por ciento.
BRAZIL: ‘Historic’ National Commitment to Wind Energy
A commitment signed by federal and state authorities in Brazil Thursday was described by the energy minister as a "historic step" towards promoting wind power.
The so-called "wind charter" is aimed at developing public policies and setting targets for the production of wind energy, which currently accounts for less than one percent of the power generated in South America’s giant.
It also establishes goals for raising funds, formulating public policies and creating incentives for developing wind power, a clean renewable source of energy that is growing 27 percent a year worldwide.
Brazil has the greatest wind power potential in Latin America and the Caribbean, according to experts.
The document "is a historic step forward for wind energy in Brazil," Environment Minister Carlos Minc told.
"Today we set goals and outlined financing and regulatory frameworks, and we won’t miss the wind power train again," said the minister from Natal, the capital of the northeastern state of Rio Grande do Norte.
Minc was one of the signatories of the "wind charter" at the end of a two-day National Wind Energy Forum that ended Friday in Natal and was attended by the state energy secretaries, national authorities, legislators and representatives of the business community.
The minister announced that the administration of left-wing President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva planned to gradually eliminate all taxes on wind power-generating equipment.
The first step in that direction was the announcement of the first auction of licenses for developing wind energy, scheduled for Nov. 25.
Minc told that his ministry would propose that the government hold such auctions every year, and that the permits be increased from a power generation capacity of 2,000 megawatts, to 3,000 megawatts.
The minister said it was "shameful" that a country like Brazil, which has the biggest wind energy potential in the region, produces a mere 200 megawatts of wind power.
The short-term outlook is to increase total wind power generation capacity to 30,000 or 40,000 megawatts, but the potential is much greater than that: around 140,000 megawatts, according to the latest wind atlas.
The Brazilian Wind Industry Association, however, estimates the potential at 300,000 megawatts, which according to the association’s president, Lauro Fiuza, represents three times the current capacity of all energy sources in Brazil.
Minc said that as well as creating incentives for clean renewable energy sources like solar and wind power, his ministry has pushed through initiatives like the requirement that coal- and diesel-fired thermal power plants pay the costs of their greenhouse gas emissions with measures like re-planting forests.
He also said large hydroelectric projects, currently the main source of energy in this country of 190 million people, now face a much more rigorous environmental permitting process.
Rio Grande do Norte state energy secretary Jean-Paul Prates said the significance of the "wind charter" lies in its detailed timeframe for promoting wind energy through incentives for R&D and by cutting taxes.
Prates told that at the start, government subsidies are "inevitable" for stepping up wind energy production. He pointed out that state support was used to encourage development of wind power in Spain, Denmark, the Netherlands, Portugal and "even the United States, which is more free-market-oriented."
He added that it is a myth that wind power is more expensive to generate than traditional sources of energy.
The state energy secretary stressed that "wind is free," and that some estimates fail to take into account other costs of traditional energy sources, like pollution and its social and economic consequences.
Another common myth, said Prates, is that wind turbines kill wildlife. He said that idea emerged from early wind parks in the U.S. state of California, which were located on bird migration routes and operated with older technology. The newer models have been designed to reduce bird mortality.
At any rate, power lines, collisions with trucks, automobiles and buildings, and feral cats are all much bigger killers of birds.
Another misconception discussed by a panel at the National Wind Energy Forum on "myths and truths about wind energy" is that the turbines create "visual pollution," said Prates.
Surveys carried out in areas where wind parks have been set up show that they do not bother local residents, because people are aware that they generate electricity and thus provide economic benefits, he said.
Because of its strong, constant winds, Rio Grande do Norte on the Atlantic coast in the extreme northeast of Brazil is one of the states with the greatest potential for expanding wind energy.
Governor Wilma de Faria highlighted the efforts made by her state to encourage wind energy production. The state has two wind parks that generate 53 megawatts.
Faria of the Brazilian Socialist Party emphasised that her state alone could generate 22,000 megawatts or more, according to new studies that assess potential in windy areas.
Rio Grande do Norte’s aim is to generate 8,000 megawatts of wind energy a year five years from now, by auctioning permits and offering incentives.
The state, which is not self-sufficient in energy production, thus hopes to eventually be able to sell surplus electricity to other parts of the country.
According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Brazil is the world’s largest renewable energy market, with around 46 percent of the country’s energy coming from renewable sources, which represent 85 percent of its power generation capacity due to its vast hydropower resources and its decades-old ethanol industry.
In addition, Brazil accounted for more than 90 percent of new investment in renewable energy in Latin America in 2008, UNEP reported.
Despites its steady growth, wind energy is still considered a marginal source of energy, with just one percent of global electricity consumption coming from wind.
But in some countries the proportion is much higher: 20 percent in Denmark, 13 percent in Spain, 11 percent in Portugal and nine percent in Italy.
Rio do Fogo, Brazil
One of the largest in Brazil, the Rio do Fogo wind farm provides carbon-free electricity when the country’s hydroelectric supply is low.
With an installed capacity of 49 MW, the Rio do Fogo wind farm is the largest in the north-east region of Brazil. When it opened in 2006 it was the first commercial wind power development in the country.
Set in an area of sand dunes and scrub not far from the Atlantic coast, Rio do Fogo produces about 130 GWh of electricity each year, avoiding the emission of 37,000 tons of carbon dioxide.
More than 85% of Brazil’s electricity currently comes from large hydroelectric power stations. In the dry season (May-November), however, water storage capacity can fall dangerously low, threatening supply. Wind power, which works strongest at this time of year, can balance out a potential hydroelectric shortfall.
The Rio do Fogo wind farm was constructed and is operated by Enerbrasil, a subsidiary of the Spanish power company Iberdrola Renovables, owner of the the largest fleet of wind turbines in the world.
More wind power is scheduled to come on line in Brazil, encouraged by the government’s PROINFA incentive programme. The Brazilian Wind Energy Association, ABEEolica, expects a total of 1,200 MW to be operating by the end of 2009.
“There’s a tremendous potential for wind power in Brazil,” says Lauro Fiuza, President of ABEEolioca. “It also works very well in partnership with the existing hydro capacity. Our expectations are very high for the future.”
FACTS: RIO DO FOGO WIND FARM AND BRAZIL
Size: 62 turbines, each with a capacity of 800 kilowatts (kW)
Total capacity: 49.3 MW
Electricity production: 130 Gigawatt hours (GWh) per annum
Climate: The wind farm saves Brazil 37,000 tons of CO2 each year (according to the emissions factor adopted by the Brazilian National Plan on Climate Change)
Opening: July 2006
The Rio do Fogo wind farm generated up to 500 jobs during its construction and has supported local agricultural development.
The Rio do Fogo wind farm is providing important economic support to the state of Rio Grande do Norte in which it is located.
During the development of the project a total of up to 500 people were employed in construction work and allied activities. Once operating, between 10 and 12 people are required to ensure its smooth operation and carry out maintenance tasks.
Rio do Fogo wind farm has twin environmental benefits: it saves carbon dioxide and it supports local agricultural regeneration
The annual electricity output from the Rio do Fogo wind farm is around 130 GWh. According to the emissions factor adopted by the Brazilian National Plan on Climate Change, this means it will avoid the emission of 37,000 tons of carbon dioxide each year.
Wind power can make a major contribution towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions because it produces no carbon dioxide during its operation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has concluded that in order to avoid the worst effects of climate change, the level of global greenhouse gas emissions must peak and begin to decline before 2020.
Rio do Fogo also blends well with the local environment. The area where it is located – sand dunes close to Brazil’s north-east Atlantic coast – is not suitable for agriculture. But income generated by the wind farm is used to support the local agricultural development activities of INCRA, the National Institute of Colonisation and Agrarian Reform.
Before construction began, the wind farm developers, Enerbrasil, a subsidiary of Spanish utility Iberdrola Renovables, had to complete a full environmental assessment for the regional agency IDEMA. This included ensuring that there was minimal damage to the site’s vegetation by access roads and construction activities. As is legally required in Brazil, the public will be guaranteed access to the wind farm site during its operation.
Land for the wind farm has been leased from INCRA, the National Institute of Colonisation and Agrarian Reform. Payment for this has been made by the developers Enerbrasil, a subsidiary of Spanish utility Iberdrola Renovables, through covering the cost of electricity used by INCRA for agricultural support activities such as land irrigation. Enerbrasil has also provided funding for community facilities in the region, including the construction of a coral reef research centre in the nearby town of Maxaranguape.
Nationally, the Brazilian government has encouraged the development of a domestic wind industry – and the resulting employment benefits – by ensuring that 60% of construction costs for PROINFA projects are spent within the country. This has resulted in the opening of a turbine manufacturing plant by a German company, and other manufacturers are now following suit.
The Brazilian government estimates that overall the PROINFA programme could generate 150,000 jobs and attract private investment of US$2.6 billion.
Brazil has the largest capacity of wind power in Latin America, encouraged by the government’s PROINFA incentive programme.
Current wind energy capacity: 342 MW (end 2008)
National target: PROINFA initial target is 3,300 MW from wind, biomass and small hydropower.
Total wind capacity in Brazil at the end of 2008 was 342 MW, the largest of any Latin American country.
Brazil is supporting the development of up to 3,300 MW of renewable energy, including wind power.
Brazil already gets 85% of its electricity supply from a renewable source – large hydroelectric power plants located in river basins mainly in the south of the country. But the storage capacity for these plants can begin to dry up in the winter/spring (May to November), threatening power shortages.
Wind power can help solve this problem because the country is windiest at the same time of year as the hydroelectric supply is weakest.
The Brazilian government introduced its PROINFA incentive programme following power shortages in 2001 resulting from a lack of hydro supply. PROINFA, administered by the national power utility Eletrobras, encourages the development of renewables (wind, biomass and small hydroelectric plants) by offering long term contracts for the electricity generated at a premium price. In its first phase the aim is to install up to 3,300 MW of new renewable power capacity.
“We have known for a long time that Brazil had a huge wind potential,” says Jorge Lima of Eletrobras “We wanted to maintain the tradition of clean energy in our electricity mix.”
Wind power developers have welcomed the opportunity offered by PROINFA. About 342 MW of wind capacity was operating by the end of 2008, mostly supported by PROINFA, with 490 MW more under construction.
According to a wind resource assessment of Brazil, the total potential for wind energy in the country is 143,000 MW, with 75,000 MW of that located in the north-east region.
“Wind has great potential to contribute to the growth in electricity supply in our country,” says Jorge Lima. “It should play a very important role in the next ten years.”
PROINFA (Programme of Incentives for Alternative Energy Sources) was introduced in 2002 with the aim of encouraging more wind, biomass and small hydro power capacity. At present, 85% of Brazil’s electricity comes from large hydro plants, but back-up generation is based on gas and diesel oil.
Administered by the national power utility Eletrobras, PROINFA offers 20 year power purchase contracts at a premium electricity price.
PROINFA has taken some time to take off, partly because of the requirement for 60% of equipment to be sourced within the country. With only one wind turbine manufacturer in Brazil until recently, this has created problems. In the past year, however, the number of wind farms being constructed under PROINFA has started to increase. It is yet unclear if the second stage of PROINFA will go ahead as planned.
On the manufacturing side, new players have also started to move into the Brazilian market, including Suzlon and Vestas. The Rio do Fogo wind farm is owned and run by Enerbrasil, a subsidiary of the Spanish utility Iberdrola Renovables.
Following on from PROINFA, and welcomed by the wind power industry, the government is now planning to introduce an auction system especially for wind farm operators. The first wind energy auction is expected to be held by mid-2009.
“This is the best way to promote the long term future of wind power,” says Lauro Fiuza of the Brazilian Wind Energy Association (ABEEolica), “by annual auctions of about 1,000 MW of wind power capacity for at least the next ten years. Many international developers and manufacturers are now coming to Brazil in anticipation of this programme.”
Natal recebe Fórum Nacional Eólico
Nesta quinta e sexta-feiras, Natal vai se transformar na capital brasileira da energia eólica.
Nesta quinta e sexta-feiras, Natal vai se transformar na capital brasileira da energia eólica. O Fórum Nacional Eólico vai discutir os rumos e desafios dos projetos de geração de energia no Brasil.
No evento, autoridades federais e os secretários estaduais encarregados dos assuntos de energia irão assinar a Carta dos Ventos, um compromisso de acompanhar a definição de regras, formulação de políticas públicas e mecanismos de atração de investimentos em energia eólica para o País.
Painéis vão debater mitos e verdades sobre projetos eólicos, aspectos ambientais e econômicos, marco regulatório, experiências internacionais e dos Estados brasileiros na viabilização dos empreendimentos, além da discussão sobre o desenvolvimento do mercado nacional de fornecedores de equipamentos e serviços.
Na sexta-feira, um workshop vai apresentar o passo a passo para implementação de projetos de energia eólica. O encontro é uma iniciativa do Fórum de Secretários de Estado para Assuntos de Energia em conjunto com o governo do Rio Grande do Norte.
Vestas fornece para Multiner
A Multiner adquiriu 92 turbinas eólicas da dinamarquesa Vestas, para as usinas eólicas Alegria I e Alegria II, no município de Guamaré (RN)
A Multiner adquiriu 92 turbinas eólicas da dinamarquesa Vestas, para as usinas eólicas Alegria I e Alegria II, no município de Guamaré (RN). Juntas, as unidades formarão o maior parque eólico do país, o complexo de Alegria, que terá capacidade de 151,8 MW e iniciará sua operação em 2010.
O projeto faz parte do Proinfa, com venda de energia garantida por 20 anos, para a Eletrobrás. Com a entrada em operação de Alegria, a brasileira estima em 5,7 GW sua futura capacidade instalada. Hoje, a potência instalada de eólicas no Brasil soma pouco mais de 400 MW.
A partir desta quinta-feira (18/06), a Multiner participará, em Natal (RN), do Fórum Nacional Eólico, que contará com a participação da ministra-chefe da Casa Civil, Dilma Rousseff, do ministro de Minas e Energia, Edison Lobão, e do ministro do Meio Ambiente, Carlos Minc.
Durante o encontro será assinada a Carta dos Ventos, documento que determina o incentivo à exploração energética eólica no país.