En la Ruta de la Seda, la vía comercial más importante de la antigua China, los recursos eólicos conducen al país a un futuro más verde.
China va camino de convertirse en una gran potencia eólica, y para ello basta contemplar la evolución de la potencia eólica instalada:
Año 2000: apenas 346 MW.
2001: 402 MW.
2002: 469 MW.
2003: 567 MW.
2004: 764 MW
2005: 1.260 MW.
2006: 2.604 MW.
2007: 5.912 MW.
2008: 12.210 MW
2009: 20.000 MW (previsto).
2010: 30.000 MW (previsto)
2020: 100.000 MW (previsto)
Numeros empresas internacionales tienen fábricas en China, como la danesa Vestas, o las españolas Gamesa y Acciona, pero también hay potentes empresas nacionales, como Goldwind de la provincia de Xinjiang. China tiene un enorme potencial eólico.
China implantó la Ley de Energías Renovables en el año 2006 como parte del plan para mejorar sus registros medioambientales. Lo que más necesita en estos momentos es la tecnología para hacer efectiva su determinación de construir un modelo económico limpio y ecológico.
Tian Shicun, subdirector del Grupo Energía Eléctrica Longyuan de China, dice que "en el mundo sólo existen unas cuantas estaciones eólicas con capacidad de generar millones de kilovatios y nosotros somos una de ellas. Este proyecto muestra los ambiciosos planes de nuestro país para desarrollar energías renovables."
El Grupo de Energía Eléctrica Longyuan de China genera un cuarto de la capacidad energética total del país y planea aumentar su producción a 6 millones de kilovatios el próximo año y a 20 millones en el 2020.
El desarrollo de la energía eólica reducirá la dependencia China del carbón, que ahora mismo genera el 70 por ciento de la energía del país.
En 10 años, la capacidad eólica de China superará los 100.000 megavatios, 5 veces más que la de la Presa de las Tres Gargantas, lo que reducirá las emisiones de CO2 en 230 millones de toneladas.
Ma Xuelu, vicedirector de la Asociación de Energía Eólica de China, indica que "muchas provincias son muy activas en la construcción de parques de energía eólica. 6 provincias planean superar los 10.000 MW, lo que supone un paso importante de China para luchar contra el calentamiento global."
China aprobó su primer Acta de Energía Renovable en el año 2006 y en base a ella, se adoptaron una serie de políticas dirigidas a estimular el desarrollo de la energía eólica. La rapidez de dicho desarrollo ha sobrepasado de lejos a la de su crecimiento económico.
China – the 4th wind power capacity in the world
China’s wind power installed capacity is expected to exceed 30,000 megawatts (MW) by the end of 2010, up from 12,000 MW last year, an official with the National Energy Administration (NEA) said yesterday.
In order to achieve this target, the country needs to invest an additional 100 billion yuan at least in the sector, said Shi Lishan, deputy director of the new energy department under the NEA.
China now has the fourth largest wind power capacity in the world. The sector has seen over 100 percent year-on-year growth in the past few years.
"Among all the clean energy sources, wind power is developing the fastest these days. The 30,000 MW target is achievable given the fast pace of growth" said Shi.
By the year 2020, China would have wind power capacity of 100,000 MW, accounting for around 10 percent of the country’s total power generation capacity, he said.
China plans to build six wind power bases each with a capacity of 10,000 mW. Shi said these six bases would be completed by 2020. Currently, wind power accounts for around 2 percent of China’s total power generation. Industry insiders said, by 2020 wind power will likely surpass nuclear power as China’s third-largest source of electricity, after thermal and hydropower.
As the world’s second largest energy consumer, China has devised preferential policies to boost the development of wind energy. Currently, the country is charting a development plan for the new energy industry, which will reportedly involve an investment of 3 trillion yuan.
"There is no doubt that wind power will account for an important part of that blueprint, as it is now the most developed sector in the new energy area" said Shi.
Wind power has three distinctive advantages. It is renewable, little water consuming and emission-free. Development of wind power can help China achieve its environment protection and emission control targets, said Shi.
Wind power is "vital" as it is the cheapest form of renewable energy, Shi said. However, Shi noted that there were still some problems in the sector. "Currently, our grid capacity cannot keep pace with the development of wind power, and it is hard for some wind power plants to connect to the grid." "We should improve our grid capacity to make sure all the wind power can be fully used."
China Longyuan Electric Power Group Corp, the country’s leading wind power developer, said yesterday it plans to increase its installed capacity to 6,000 MW in 2010 from 2,630 MW now.
The company, which produces one third of the wind power in the country, has also embarked on its offshore wind power projects, said Huang Qun, vice-president of Longyuan.
China’s major energy companies have all paid increasing attention to the development of wind power. The country’s five major power producers have all started wind power businesses. China National Offshore Oil Corp has also started operating its first offshore wind power project.
Shi Lishan, deputy director of the renewable energy department of the National Energy Administration, say that wind power is now "vital" to China’s future energy mix, as it is one of the cheapest forms of alternative energy in comparison to conventional sources.
He noted that the on-grid price for wind power is now about $0.70 to $0.80 per kilowatt hour, while coal is $0.29 to $0.58.
With improvements in turbine manufacture and design continuing, the figures raise the prospect of wind energy moving closer to cost parity with China’s main source of energy over the next few years.
About 80 wind farms are already operating in China, with plans for three more announced recently.
China Resources Power Holdings said it has received government approval for two wind farm projects in Gansu and Guangdong provinces totaling 221MW in capacity. Meanwhile, Spanish wind turbine maker Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica and China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group plan to build a wind farm in Shandong province, with construction slated to begin this year.
Vestas turns to Inner Mongolia to drive Chinese expansion plans
Vestas, the world’s biggest wind turbine manufacturer, has confirmed that it is to press ahead with plans for a huge expansion in China, despite recent reports that the global economic downturn could leave the company with 15 per cent of excess capacity.
According to recent reports, the company plans to invest $350m (£248m) in extending its plant in Tianjin in response to growing demand from customers in China. Vestas spokesman Peter Krause said that the original expansion plans had been announced last year and would continue despite the changing economic conditions.
He added that in addition to extending the facility at Tianjen, the company was also building a foundry plant to the north of Shanghai and finalising plans for a new facility in Inner Mongolia dedicated to building smaller scale " kilowatt turbines" for the Chinese market.
Vestas has received a number of larger orders from Chinese customers in recent months, including an order for 116 turbines from China Guangdong Nuclear Wind Power, and Krause was concerned there were no fears that the company would be burdened with overcapacity as a result of the expansion.
"China is heading towards an installed base of 100,000MW of wind power – that is equivalent to what the entire world had installed at the end of 2007," he said. "In a market like that an extra manufacturing plant to two can be very handy."
Globally, however, the immediate outlook for Vestas remains less upbeat, after the company last week warned that the economic crisis could leave it with some excess capacity.
"Six months ago everyone [in the investment community] said we were not doing enough to meet demand growing at an expected 40 per cent this year," he observed. "Now people are saying, ‘Why have you put in place plans for a 40 per cent increase in capacity when growth levels are only going to be 25 per cent?’
Siemens Blows Into Chinese Wind Market
Germany’s Siemens broke ground on a new wind turbine manufacturing plant in Shanghai, marking the company’s entry into China’s wind energy market. Siemens Wind Power Blades (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., with an initial investment of RMB 581 million (EUR 64 million), is expected to begin operation in the second half of 2010. The new production site will initially produce blades for 2.3 and 3.6 megawatts (MW) wind turbine plants, and plans include produce turbine nacelles at a later stage.
However, reported that foreign wind turbine makers–such as Vestas, Gamesa and Suzlon are complaining that despite efforts to meet state regulations, they are unable to win contracts in the fast-growing wind market. The government requires the turbine makers to source and build 70% of their equipment in China, but officials said there is no discrimination against foreign firms.
Siemens also announced it is acquiring a 25% stake in German renewable energy developer BGZ AG. The company develops, finances and operates renewable power facilities like wind, solar and biomass power plants. In 200, BGZ generated about EUR 50 million in revenue and has installed more than 950 MW of wind power capacity. Financial terms were not disclosed. A new company jumped into the electric vehicle market this week. Coda Automotive announced plans to sell an all-electric, four-door sedan in California by the fall of 2010. The vehicle will be called the Coda, and the company said it will have a 100-mile range and sell for about $45,000 before federal and state incentives. It will be manufactured in China by state-owned Harbin Hafei Automotive, and it will be powered by lithium-ion batteries made by Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint-Stock Co. Coda Automotive said the vehicle will fully charge in six hours when plugged into a 220V outlet.
Xinjiang Goldwind Science & Technology Company is a Chinese wind turbine manufacturer based in Urumqi, Xinjiang. The company is the largest turbine manufacturer in China and one of the ten largest in the world.
Goldwind Science & Technology Co., Ltd. specializes in R&D, product development and the manufacturing of large-sized wind turbines.
Goldwind’s high speed of growth is depending on the country’s policy and support, understanding and helping from all fields of the society as well as the open culture of enterprise and the mechanism to take the people as root. Goldwind has enjoyed annual 100% market share growth for the last 8 years consecutively. In 2007, Goldwind Science & Technology Co., Ltd. reported that it has been holding 25.25% market share in China’s wind power market, again ranking top amongst other suppliers.
In 1998, newly established Xinfeng Scientific and Industrial Trade Co., Ltd. of Xinjiang undertook the national key scientific and technology project of the 9th Five-Year-Plan to develop 600kW wind power generating sets. In 1999, the 600kW wind power generating set was successfully developed. In the year 2000, the company started the tough task of converting itself from an R&D-oriented enterprise to a market-oriented enterprise and trying to achieve a “zero” sales breakthrough.
In 2001, the company changed completely to Goldwind Science & Technology Co., Ltd of Xinjiang. The new company was then authorized to undertake three national scientific and technological projects, namely the research and development of “MW stall-regulated wind power generating set and its key components, which is part of the “863” plan of the State, industrial production technology of 600kW wind power generating sets, and the development of 750kW wind power generator sets, both of which are key scientific and technology projects for the State’s 10th Five-Year-Plan. In 2002, after the establishment and commissioning of the modern large-sized wind power generating set assembly base, Goldwind got ready for an annual manufacturing capacity of 200 sets of 600kW-1MW wind power generators.
In 2003, Goldwind had grown into the largest developer and manufacturer of wind turbine generators in China. In 2005, the first 1.2MW wind power generating set was put into operation in the Dabancheng wind farm. In 2006, Goldwind Wind Energy GmbH was registered and established in Germany. In February, Goldwind Science & Technology Creation Wind Power Equipment Co., Ltd was established in Beijing. In August, Goldwind won the tender for installation of 33 sets of 1.5MW WTG, a project for the Beijing Olympic Games. In 2006, Goldwind had captured 33% of the China market share, ranking No.1 domestically and the 10th in the world.
In 2007, the first batch of five 1.5MW WTG sets were put into operation in Dabancheng Wind Farm. On December 26th , Goldwind went public at the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. By the end of Jan.2008, sales orders for Goldwind WTG had accumulated to 3,693 sets with a total capacity to generate 3,452.6 MW of electricity, and projects distributed throughout 18 provinces and regions in China. Goldwind has won market growth performance of over 100% for eight consecutive years.
By December 31, 2008, Goldwind sold 3,527 wind turbines totally, with a total cumulative capacity of 2894.1MW. In 2008, The wind power market maintained rapid growth in China, the company had sufficient orders. The company has not only a large number of orders of 1.5MW units, but 750kW units were still favored by the market. New orders of 1532.25MW were increased, including 750kW units for 804.75MW, and 1.5MW units for 727.50MW; By the end of 2008, the company implemented a total capacity of orders for 1541.25MW, including 750kW units for 170.25MW, and 1.5MW units for 1371MW. In addition, the company achieved a breakthrough in international sales to signed a supply agreement of 6 sets of 750kW units with ENERGOIMPORT company in Cuba and shipped them in December, it achieved a revenue of 33,223,700 RMB.
In addition to the signed orders, the company won the bid of 811.50 MW of the 10,000,000 kW Base Project in Jiuquan, Gansu Province, which has laid a good market foundation for continued development in next two years.
The first wind power project in the world to supply power to marine oil field; The first synchronization of integrated power grid realized between wind power and isolated island power; The first successful implementation in the world of wind power generator unit with global hoisting; The first on-the-sea installation of permanent-magnetic direct-drive generator unit in the world; China’s first marine wind power generator unit and first marine wind power project.
Gamesa To Supply 295 MW of Turbines to China
Gamesa Corporacion Tecnologica has received several turbine orders from Chinese renewables development company Longyuan Electric Power Group Corporation. The orders represent a total capacity of 295 megawatts (MW) of wind turbines.
To be supplied in 2009, the 347 units of the Gamesa G5X-850 kW platform manufactured in Gamesa’s production facilities in Tianjin, China. The machines will be supplied for different wind farms located in several Chinese provinces.
The scope of the order includes the supply of generators (without towers), the supervision of their assembly and start-up, along with two years of operation and maintenance.