El pasado año 2008 se instalaron en España 1.609,11 MW eólicos con lo que la potencia acumulada a 1 de enero de 2009 es de 16.740,32 MW, según el Observatorio Eólico de la Asociación Empresarial Eólica (AEE), que recoge los datos facilitados por sociedades propietarias y fabricantes y que son contrastados con las administraciones autonómicas.
Este crecimiento era el esperado por el sector después de un ejercicio especial como lo fue el 2007, con un aumento de más de 3.500 MW, en el que las empresas realizaron un esfuerzo para poner en funcionamiento el mayor número de parques para acogerse al marco retributivo anterior.
Los 16.740 MW actuales consolidan a España como tercer país del mundo en potencia instalada y permitirán alcanzar en 2010 el objetivo de 20.155 MW del Plan de Energías Renovables 2005-2010.
Como se esperaba el crecimiento de la potencia eólica en España ha vuelto a los parámetros medios de los últimos años con un aumento de 1.609,11 MW que lleva la capacidad de los parques eólicos en funcionamiento hasta los 16.740,32 MW lo que supone que en los últimos cinco años se han instalado en España 10.532 MW, según los datos del Observatorio Eólico de la Asociación Empresarial Eólica.
Como estaba previsto el incremento es inferior al del 2007, que fue de 3.505 MW, año récord impulsado por el nuevo RD 661 que aceleró la construcción de los todos los proyectos planteados antes de la aprobación de la nueva norma, ya que aquellos parques que se pusieran en funcionamiento antes del 1 de enero de 2008 podían mantenerse hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2012 con unas condiciones más favorables en su retribución.
AEE, sin embargo, considera que los 1.609 MW instalados en 2008 confirman la solidez del sector y que dicho aumento, que se mantendrá o incrementará en los dos próximos años, permitirá alcanzar los 20.155 MW eólicos fijados como objetivo en el vigente Plan de Energías Renovables 2005-2010.
El incremento de 1.609 MW supone un aumento del 10,63 por ciento, pero es el tercero mayor en términos absolutos en la corta historia de la energía eólica en España, pues sólo es superado por los registrados en 2007 (3.505 MW y 30%) y 2004 (2.297,51 MW y un 37%).
La energía eólica evitó en 2008 la emisión de 20 millones de toneladas de CO2 y la importación de combustibles fósiles por valor de más de 1.200 millones de euros. Cubrió en 2008 el 11,5 por ciento de la demanda eléctrica, ha generado 40.000 puestos de trabajo, y exportó en 2007 por valor de más de 2.550 millones de euros. La eólica aporta directa e indirectamente 3.270 millones de euros al PIB en el que ya representa el 0,35 por ciento.
Wind power in Spain
Spain is the world’s third biggest producer of wind power, after the United States and Germany, with an installed capacity of 16,740 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2008, a rise of 1,609 MW for the year. The largest producer of wind power in Spain is Iberdrola, with 27 percent of capacity, followed by Acciona on 16 percent and Endesa with 10 percent. Steady growth in capacity is expected in 2009, despite the credit crunch, due to long-term investments. Spain’s wind farms are on track to meet a government target of 20,000 MW in capacity by 2010.
On particular windy days, wind power generation has surpassed all other electricity sources in Spain, including nuclear. On April 18, 2008 the all time peak for wind generation was seen (10,879 MW, 32% of Spain’s power requirement), and on November 24, 2008 the wind energy produced the 43% of the demand.
Wind power is an important energy source in Spain because the Spanish government has sanctioned a green energy approach to guarantee an increase in the country’s wind generation capacity, with aspirations to install a total of 20.1 GW of wind power by 2010. The approaches of energy deregulation that have been initiated in Spain recently are generating noteworthy developments within the energy sector. Multilateral cooperation for involvement in wind power production throughout Europe has created investment prospects for the industry and lower energy costs due to the efficiency of the renewable energy source and its domestic availability.
Rank Autonomous Region 2009
1 Castile- La Mancha-3.415,61 MW
2 Galicia- 3.145,24 MW
3 Castile and León- 3.334,04 MW
4 Aragon- 1.749,31 MW
5 Andalusia- 1.794,99 MW
6 Navarre- 958,77 MW
7 Valencian Community- 710,34 MW
8 La Rioja- 446,62 MW
9 Catalonia- 420,44 MW
10 Asturias- 304,30 Mw
11 Basque Country- 152,77 MW
12 Murcia- 152,31 MW
13 Canary Islands- 134,09 MW
14 Cantabria- 17,85 MW
15 Balearic Islands- 3,65 MW
Spain total- 16.740,32 MW
The intended wind energy capacity to be installed in the autonomous regions by 2010-2011 consists of 20,000 MW.
“Spain is currently undergoing a renewable-energy revolution, with the Navarre region set to be the first in Europe to be self-sufficient in renewable energy”. The US rating agency Standard & Poors, in a current investigation of standard of living in Europe, ranked Navarre, whose primary source of renewable energy is wind power, uppermost among the 17 autonomous regions of Spain. Navarre, Europe’s sixth largest producer of wind power, currently sustains approximately 70 percent of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources, wind farms being used most extensively, and has a 900-megawatt capacity of installed wind power, ranking it ahead of the UK, Sweden, and France.
Navarre lacks thermal, nuclear, coal, oil, gas fields, or hefty hydro-electric power stations, but does possess considerable renewable resources, which the Government of Navarre pursued to drop its foreign energy dependence. “Navarre’s economic success is a function of its small population (only 500,000 people), low unemployment, rich agricultural traditions, and most recently, a boom in rural tourism”.
Navarre was entirely reliant on imported energy until wind-power development and utilization began progress in 1996. Now, with its own renewable energy companies, such as Navarre Hydroelectric, projects are underway including the proposal of building the biggest offshore wind power production facility in the world in southwestern Spain on the spot of the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar.
Galicia currently leads wind power development in the autonomous regions for the third consecutive year with an increase in wind power of 264 MW, succeeding Castilla La Mancha, which exceeded the development goal of 1000 MW, and followed by Aragon, Navarre, and Castile-Leon, and the remaining autonomous regions. Castilla Leon and La Rioja have initiated wind energy production, and the north-eastern area of Soria also holds the capacity to be an efficient producer; the possession of workable resources for wind power development is also represented in the Cantabrian, eastern and south-eastern coasts.
Thanks to its geographic location and climate, Andalucia is an ideal area for generating renewable energy from windmills, photovoltaic panels and solar panels, thermoelectric and hydraulic plants.
According to information provided by the regional government’s “Andalusian Energy Agency” (Agencia Andaluza de la Energía), this 31.8 percent of this region’s energy will come from renewable energy in 2013. That is equivalent to 90% of home energy consumption in the south of Spain.
This is the main objective of the Andalucian Sustainable Energy Plan (Plan Andaluz de Sostenibilidad Energética, Pasener 2007-2013) and it will also translate into more than 100,000 jobs in the renewable energy sector. To make this a reality, the plan calls for numerous programs and measures to aid citizens, companies, government agencies and basic infrastructure organisations to install renewable energy. This includes acquisition of hybrid vehicles and the substitution of home appliances and energy efficient machinery.
As of May 2009, Andalucia is leading the growth of the wind energy sector in Spain for the second year in a row with 2,115 megawatts working thanks to different wind farms distributed throughout the south of Spain:
Cádiz: 58 wind farms
Málaga: 14 wind farms
Almería: 13 wind farms
Granada: 10 wind farms
Huelva: 3 wind farms
Sevilla: 2 wind farms
Jaén: 1 wind farm
The development of this source of renewable energy has given rise to a strong renewable energy sector throughout Andalucia, and this includes manufacturers who produce aero generator towers in Linares (Jaén) and related manufacturing in Marquesado de Zenete (Granada).
In fact, the two renewable energy sectors that have experienced the greatest growth in the south of Spain during recent years are wind and photovoltaic energy.
According to an organisation called APREAN (Association of Promotors and Producers of Renewable Energies in Andalucia – in Spanish: Asociación de Promotores y Productores de Energías Renovables de Andalucía), Andalucia is one European regions with more potential growth in the renewable energy sector. At this time therefore, renewable energy is one of the pillars of Andalucia’s model for economic change. This is a new model based on innovative, sustainable, high tech industry that can compete at the international level.
By means of the approval of the Wind Energy Plan the Regional Government has taken a decisive step in favour of an organised and sustainable development using renewable energy sources to generate electricity.
On one hand the wind is a natural and inexhaustible resource and, on the other, the wind energy is the most mature technology in the renewable energy field and the one that obtains better results considering the installed power.
For these reasons the Regional Government has identified the wind energy as a fundamental element in increasing electricity production in the Region and to achieve the execution of the environmental commitments. The Wind Energy Plan is made up of 15 areas distributed in the three Valencian provinces and it will have 67 wind farms.
When drawing up the Plan in the first place the areas with appropriate wind speed were determined. Following that, some of these areas were excluded due to them being protected natural parks, bird nesting areas, humid areas, national reservations for hunt, forest with interesting tree species, biological corridors of community interest, areas with cultural and landscape values, and other environmental considerations.
In February 2003 the administrative procedure began. Starting the first of the programmed wind farms in February 2006 was the first step. It is forecasted that in 2008 the foreseen 67 wind parks will be up and running. The foreseen wind farms will generate yearly around 5500 giga watts hour of electricity energy. That is equal approximately to 80% of the electricity consumption of the household sector of the Region (Comunitat Valenciana).
Also, when the Plan is completed, the emission to the atmosphere of 2,1 million tons of CO2 will be avoided. This is equivalent to that produced by 140 million trees. Besides energy and environmental benefits, the Plan will allow the creation of an industrial infrastructure and local economic activity will be boosted through energy plans elaborated by the promoter companies.
The total investment generated by the Wind Energy Plan will be around 2000 million Euros. Around 1875 million Euros of that will be investment in the wind farms.
Spain OKs Offshore Areas For Wind Power Installations
Spain’s government approved a map setting out the areas for potential offshore wind power developments after months of delay. Wind power companies, among them Iberdrola Renovables SA (IBR.MC) and Acciona SA (ANA.MC), can now hand over bids to reserve areas along Spain’s coastline to build wind parks, the Industry Ministry said in a press release.
Once selected, the companies will have a maximum of two years to formulate a definitive proposal for final government approval. Spain already has the world’s No. 3 onshore wind power generating capacity, but hasn’t exploited offshore wind energy. The country has more than 8,000 kilometers of coastline.
Spanish wind power operators have already presented offshore projects with an installed capacity of at least 6,000 megawatts. Iberdrola Renovables has six offshore projects near Cadiz and Huelva in Southern Spain, as well as in Eastern Spain, near Castellon. Both projects have an installed capacity of 3,000 megawatts.
A company spokesman declined to comment before studying in depth the environmental regulations of the plan. The wind power map is based on environmental aspects such as wind speeds, the characteristics and depth of the sea floor, marine life as well as fishing and shipping activity in the area.
Acciona has earmarked EUR2.4 billion for a 1,000 megawatt single project near Cadiz, between 10 and 18 kilometers from the coast. Endesa SA’s (ELE.MC) renewables unit has formed a consortium with Grupo Elecnor SA (ENO.MC) for a 420 megawatt project, also in Cadiz.
AEE, the Spanish wind power association, estimates the first offshore wind parks won’t come online until 2015. AEE expects Spain will have an installed offshore capacity of 4,000 megawatts by 2020. Offshore wind power is still in its early stages of development because of the high cost of marine foundations and installation, and as offshore turbines are more expensive than onshore ones owing to different technological requirements.
Europe has around 1,471 megawatts of offshore wind capacity, according to the European Wind Energy Association. Of that, 591 megawatts are from the U.K., the world leader.
Largely concerned with advancing energy efficiency use in Spain, the Institute for Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) also seeks to expand renewable energy sources and energies. “If Spain meets its goal of generating 30 percent of its electricity needs from renewable power by 2010, with half of that amount coming from wind power, it will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 77 million tons”.
Research concerning the production of hydrogen from the use of water by a wind farm is occurring at a newly installed laboratory in the Universidad Pública de Navarra under an agreement between Energía Hidroeléctrica de Navarra, Stuart Energy Systems of Canada, and Statkraft of Norway. The lab will replicate the power generation environment of a wind farm and examine the effects of an electrolyzer. Concentrated research is occurring concerning wind measurement in the Albacete region at Higueruela.
Wind power industry
“The business framework for the installed capacity of wind power in the Autonomous Regions was made up of more than 170 companies that included manufacturers (wind turbines, blades, towers, generators, multipliers, electrical equipment, etc.), suppliers (hydraulic and electrical equipment and equipment for controlling and regulating), mechanical construction and public works companies, installation companies and maintenance, exploitation, and engineering companies in 2003”.
“Spanish companies are leading the way in turbine innovation by increasing the size of turbines while reducing turbine weight, and are also developing new technologies to take advantage of wind changes and split-second power outages”.
The Spanish wind energy sector now hosts the involvement of over 500 companies, with approximately 150 wind turbine production plants and their machinery across the Spanish regions. The assets of the Spanish industry are being noticed and acted upon by financial analysts, as United States Ernst and Young in 2005 ranked the wind market in Spain among the uppermost in its index of “long-term country attractiveness”. Including those indirectly employed in supplying components and services, the total number of jobs supported by Spain’s wind industry has reached more than 30,000, and is estimated to double to 60,000 by 2010”.
“Navarra’s engineering group, Gamesa Corporación Tecnológica, the second-largest global wind turbine manufacturer, currently manufactures and exports nearly 20 percent of the world’s wind turbines, and is aiming to become a market leader in Britain’s renewable energy sector through its local subsidiary, Gamesa Energy UK”. The company values the distinctive geographical setting of Spain as a benefit to Spanish companies competing in the global arena. Gamesa Eólica currently operates plants in Spain, The US and China. It has projects in many other parts of the world including Egypt, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, and Portugal. Gamesa opened a manufacturing plant for wind turbine generator blades in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 2005, creating 500 part-time building and operations jobs and 236 permanent manufacturing jobs; the building, operation, and upkeep of Gamesa’s wind farms, in conjunction with its two Philadelphia offices and production plant, formed about 1,000 jobs in the state over a five-year period. The company seeks expansion into Greece, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom.
Acciona Energy (Acciona Energía), the biggest global wind-park developer, currently operates in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Morocco, Spain, and the United States. The company credits its success to its initial stages in Navarre during 1994. Its line of work involves wind-farm operation, turbine manufacture, and the development of wind-power plants, and the company intends to expand into China, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.
According to Cohn et al., “Iberdrola, Spain’s No. 2 utility, set up its first wind farm in 2000 and overtook FPL Energy of Florida in 2004 as the world’s largest wind farm operator” (2005). Iberdrola currently holds functioning facilities in Brazil, France, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Portugal, Spain, the United States and the United Kingdom, and is continuing to develop wind farms in Europe and Latin America.
As of 2008, Iberdrola plans to develop six offshore wind farm projects with a combined generation capacity of 3000 MW at locations off the coasts of the Spanish Atlantic provinces of Cadiz, Huelva and the Mediterranean province of Castellon.
The national Spanish wind energy industry has begun to export its wind generators by forming contracts for the erection of wind farms in China, India, and Mexico, as well as Cuba, where work began in 1998 (2007). They also have contracts at a highly developed stage with Portugal, Turkey, Tunisia, Egypt, Brazil, and Argentina.
Ecotecnia, the second largest Spanish manufacturer focused on decreasing the weight of its wind turbines, currently manages wind production facilities in Cuba, France, India, Japan, Portugal, and Spain. The company plans on expanding operations into China and Italy, and was one of the original companies to put in a wind-power generator in Spain. The existing wind energy capacity for major companies in Spain is the following: Gamesa Eólica, 3281 MW; Made, 803 MW; Neg Micon, 715 MW; Ecotècnia, 446 MW; G. Electric, 343 MW; Izar-Bonus, 317 MW; Desa & AWP, 121 MW; Enercon, 58 MW; Lagerwey, 38 MW; and Others, 113 MW (2007).
Three factors will control the further progress of wind power development in Spain: the capability of the wind farms network to hold all the electricity harnessed by wind power, predominantly in off-peak times, the cost of energy, and the environmental effect that the abundance of wind farm development in Spain could turn out. The Spanish wind power industry will be confronted with the following issues in the immediate future:
* formulating its development to be congruent with required supply agreements by the national electricity supply operator
* guaranteeing that the installation of wind farms occurs with recognition of the environment
* synchronizing wind power development of the 17 autonomous regions
* trimming down the investment costs to acquire sufficient returns with declining energy prices in the upcoming years.
It is also noteworthy that the supportive Spanish policies for wind power development have resulted in severe competition for construction sites among major companies. Political leaders in the autonomous communities have been frazzled by the numerous applications for wind farm construction.